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Proud to bring you information via The Web since 1996

DONALD J. CAPUANO, MD.
Plastic Surgeon


To understand the words 'Plastic Surgery' one needs to understand the nature of the human experience. Humans in general have attempted to change and embellish their bodies since the dawn of time.

The frozen corpse of the medicine man of the Alps (thought to be much more than ten thousand years old) was noted to have tattoos on his body - perhaps to make him more beautiful.

More recent ancient civilizations took pride in certain human characteristics that they saw as beautiful and they attempted to change the body to make it 'beautiful' as they saw it.

The molding of the head of an Inca infant, the scarring of the skin practiced by African tribes to leave a pleasing pattern of scar on the skin, the use of lead paste applied to the skin by medieval woman so that their skin would be whitewash white, all were attempts to change the human body to conform with a concept of beauty. Today, hair is slicked back or teased up. Lids and lips are painted. Tanning beds darken some skins, bleaching agents lighten others and so forth. These are enhancements that are thought of as beautiful and are relatively easily accomplished by most individuals.

More complex methods of changing the body were developed of course by certain 'specialists'. The 'medicine man' and 'medicine woman' of the past developed more complex skills in altering the human form. Changing the configuration of the skull took more than every day knowledge to prevent significant brain damage or even death to the Inca infant. The skull should not be wrapped too tightly and it should be wrapped at a certain angle only.

Skill was needed to correctly scar the skin of the African tribes. Some method to prevent infection must have been known and practiced.

The use of lead skin pastes seemed harmless enough but certainly woman were harmed by lead poisoning. Certain preparations that were effective and less harmful were available. These were known to specialists and their use directed by specialists.

The more sophisticated the methods of change and the more invasive the procedure, i.e... the more the skin and deeper tissues were probed, the more skill the individual needed to have.

Ancient practitioners of complex, sophisticated methods were found centuries ago in the Indian subcontinent. These early 'plastic surgeons' were probably the first to write about changing or in some cases restoring 'beauty' or a pleasing form to a person. There is a famous diagram in the ancient Indian literature which shows the restoration of a nose after it had been cut off. The 'Indian forehead flap' for nose reconstruction was developed centuries before the birth of Christ. This method was used to restore the noses of mutilated prisoners of war. Fine results were depicted in the drawings and to this date Plastic Surgeons will use the 'Indian forehead flap' method of nasal reconstruction.

So where does 'plastic surgeon' come from ?! Contrary to popular belief, a plastic surgeon does not use plastic or skin grafts to do 'plastic surgery'. 'Plasticos' is of Greek word origin and means to mold or form. This is indeed what the Plastic Surgeon attempts to do, mold or make a new form of a face, breast, abdomen and so forth. The term 'surgeon' has French, Italian, Latin and ultimately Greek origins. 'Chirugia' is Latin for surgeon and was derived from two Greek roots 'cheir' (hand) and 'ergon' (work). A plastic surgeon is one who works with his hands to mold the human form.



The current definition of a 'Plastic Surgeon' is a surgeon who has been trained in a
Plastic Surgical Residency / Fellowship Training Program,
and by his / her training is eligible to take the examination of the


AMERICAN BOARD OF PLASTIC SURGERY

which is the examination sanctioned by

The AMERICAN BOARD OF MEDICAL SPECIALISTS



There are many surgeons who are
"Board Certified"
and claim to be Plastic Surgeons but check for


"Board Certified in Plastic Surgery"
or
"Board Certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery"
or
check for Board Certified Plastic Surgeons at ASPRS

The American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons


Web Disclaimer - Copyright Donald J. Capuano MD 6/96




A GENERAL CATEGORIZATION OF PLASTIC SURGERY
by D. J. Capuano MD FACS

PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE
&
COSMETIC AND RESTORATIVE





PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY




CONGENITAL PROBLEMS

Problems present from birth which may or may not be familial i.e. "runs in the family"


Craniofacial (face and skull)
Neck
Breast surgery
to even the size of breasts
to reduce the size of breasts programmed to be very large

Trunk
hernias
skin defects as in spina bifida


Extremities
Arm
forearm
hand
Lower extremity
foot
Genitalia
development problems of the
male and female genital track

ACQUIRED PROBLEMS

Disease processes
Skin tumors
Breast tumors
Head and neck tumors
Injuries
Trauma
Burns

COSMETIC SURGERY


FACE and NECK COSMETIC SURGERY

Brow lift
Face Lift
Neck lift
Contouring by Suction Lipectomy
Eyelid Surgery
Nasal Surgery
Internal (breathing) and External ('looks')
Lips
Mouth
Cheeks - implants - contouring
Shaping of the skull
Hair Transplant




SKIN RESURFACING



Skin Care Products Glycolic Acid Products Renova & Retin-A Clarifying agents Pigment and 'spot' removers


CHEMICAL PEELS
LASER RESURFACING
DERMABRASION




- LIPOSUCTION -



Areas treatable include (listed in order of approximate frequency of requests for treatment) in our office) - hips - thighs - waist (abdomen) - neck - face - arms - - calves - ankles -
Fat transfer from areas of liposuction (listed in order of approximate frequency of requests for treatment) in our office)
breasts (not done) - - lips - lower legs - calves - hands -
male genitalia (not done)




BREAST SURGERY

Reduction of Large Breasts
Enlargement of small breasts - even and uneven sizes
Elevation of sagging breasts
Removal of excess tissue from male breasts
Prophylactic cancer surgery on the breast
removal of the pre-malignant breast
or malignant tissue
preserving the nipple or reconstructing same
and reconstructing the breast mound
little known and potentially life saving surgery
Reconstruction of breast after cancer surgery
use of FDA approved implants
use of tissue from the abdomen
use of other tissues


VERY SPECIALIZED AREAS OF EXPERTISE
by Plastic Surgeons



Certain Plastic Surgeons have extensive experience in very specialized areas
SOME areas are referenced here



Cranio-Facial Surgery
Congenital Hand Surgery
Cleft Lip and Palate
Chest Wall Problems - complications after open heart surgery
Microvascular transfer of tissue (sewing of small blood vessels to allow tissue to be transferred to other areas as used in breast reconstruction from the abdomen
as used to reconstruct tissue defects after accidents
etc

WHAT IS PLASTIC SURGERY?


Cosmetic Surgery / Suction Lipectomy / Facial Cosmetic Surgery / Laser Surgery / Cosmetic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery / Chemical Peel /Computerized Facial Imaging / (Small Incision) Endoscopic Cosmetic Surgery / Other Plastic Surgical Operations / Group Lecture / Information Availability / Affiliation with Unity Hospital / Accredited Ambulatory Surgery Unit / Learn more about Dr. Capuano / Meet the office staff / How to find us / Operative Procedures / Benefits of Plastic Surgery / Send email to Dr.Capuano / Other Plastic Surgery links on the Internet / FDA Breast Implant Information / mailing list

2001 to Present CapuanoUSA | Email questions to info@DoctorCapuano.com